Thursday, July 2, 2020

Indias Art Culture - Free Essay Example

India or Bharat, the fifth largest and the second populated country in the world, is one of the few countries which can boast of an ancient, deep-rooted and diverse culture, which stretches back to 5000 years. In ancient times, India was known as Bharata Varsha, the country of the legendary king of Puranic times called Bharat, and was supposed to be a part of the island continent called Jambu Dvipa. Geologically speaking, India formed part of the Gondwana land and was attached to Antarctica and Australia , before it was liberated from the Antarctica complex about 135 million years ago and started drifting towards the north and finally joining South Asia about 45 million years ago. The Siwalik foothills of the north-western Himalayas served as home to the fossil primate genus known as Ramapithecus, which lived some 14 million years ago. Researches have also found that a species resembling the Australopithecus lived in India some 2 million years ago. Some anthropologists believe that the Chotanagpur region witnessed the transformation of Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens. Extensive archaeological excavations carried out at Mohenjodaro in 1922 brought to light the existence of a highly sophisticated and urbanized culture known as the Harappan Civilization in India dating back to about 2600-2000 B. C. , which dominated the north-western part of the Indian Subcontinent. It is believed that this civilisation covered an area of 1600 km from east to west and 1100 km from north to south, which exceeds the area occupied by contemporary civilisations like the Egyptian and Mesopotamian Civilisations. The next most important phase in the Indian history came centuries later with the advent of Aryans from the northwest of India . The Aryan migration to India was gradual and spread over many centuries. The Aryans developed a remarkable culture, popularly known as Vedic culture, which was markedly different from the Harappan Culture. Endless Diversity There is an endless diversity in India starting from its physical features to Geologic structure, fauna and flora, demographic structure, races, languages, religions, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. India has een variously described as the Mini World, the epitome of the world and an ethnological museum. The diversity in India is unique. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indian civilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day. India s culture has been enriched by successive waves of migration, which were absorbed into the Indian way of life. The successive waves of migration i nto India started with the Indo-Greeks (2nd Century B. C. ), followed by the Kushans (First century A. D. ), the incursions from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian and others beginning in the early 8th century A. D. and culminating with the establishment of the Muslim empire by the 13th century, and finally the advent of Europeans the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English, the Danes and the French. These interactions over the years led to introduction of newer elements in India ’s arts, music, literature and customs and traditions, thus enriching our cultural heritage. From the very ancient times India not only absorbed the foreign cultures into its composite fold, but it also managed to spread the rich elements of its own unique culture in different parts of the world. It is historically recorded that the Chola rulers had cultural contacts with countries like Ilamandalam ( Sri Lanka ), Sri Vijaya ( Sumatra ), Chavakam (Java), Kamboja ( Cambodia ) and Kadaram ( Malay Peninsula ). Evidences of these early Indian contacts are still found in the art and architecture of these countries. The Southeast Asian countries formed a stronghold of Indian culture from the early centuries of the Christian era. The various Southeast Asian languages show strong influence of Sanskrit. Many earlier kingdoms of these countries had adopted Hinduism as their religion, whose influence is perceptible even today. India presents a picture of unity in diversity to which history provides no parallel. There is complete harmony in India in each of its cultural elements. Religion and philosophy, which forms the bedrock of any civilisation, are evident in India in the form of all major religions in the world Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism and Judaism. Regional Diversity Each state of India has its own language and set of tribes, festivals, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. While there are the Chenchus tribes in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, Bhils and Gonds in Central India, Dogris, Gujjars and Ladakhis in Jammu and Kashmir and Nagas, Bodos, Mishmis, Gharos and Khasis in the Northeast, there are tribes like the Jarewas, Onges, Andamanis and Sentinelese in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. There are some festivals, which are typical of particular states, cities or towns like the Bonnalu of Andhra Pradesh, Pushkar of Rajasthan, Rajrani of Orissa, Teej of Rajasthan and Bogali Bihu of Assam . Each region is also identified with its typical folk and tribal dance forms, like Puli Vesham of Andhra Pradesh, Keli Gopal of Assam , Chhau of Bihar , Dandia of Gujarat , Bhangra of Punjab and Otthanthulal of Kerala. Similar parallels can also be drawn in the folk drama, theatre and arts and crafts. Development of Arts and Fine Arts There was a continuous evolution of drama, music, dance, painting and folk art forms under the different political rules in India that ultimately led to the development of the definite Indian element in each of these forms. Thus, within the ambience of Indian culture one can identify Indian Music, Indian Dance, Indian Theatre, Indian Literature, Indian Fairs and Festivals and so on. Indian music has a very long and unbroken tradition, which is an accumulated heritage of centuries and traces its roots to Vedic days. Bharatas Natyashastra (4th Century AD) is a great, comprehensive work on the science and technique of Indian drama, dance and music. The advent of Muslim rule in India brought in a changed perspective in the style of Northern Indian music. The traditional Hindu devotional music form of dhruvapad got transformed into the classical dhrupad form of singing under the Muslim rule. The khayal developed as a new form of singing in the 18th century A. D. and became equally popular among Hindus and Muslims. Different ragas began to be introduced from the medieval times. Tansen created many new ragas like Darbari Kanada, Darbari Todi, Miyan Ki Todi, Miya ki Malhar and Miya ki Sarang, which until now, are regarded as the foremost ragas of Northern India . Sultan Hussain Sarki of Jaunpur introduced ragas like Jaunpuri tori and Hussaini Kanada. Amir Khusro is credited with the creation of the Hemant, Prabhat Kali and Hem Behag ragas. A large variety of foreign musical instruments like Harmonium, Sarod, Shehnai, Sitar, Tabla and Violin were introduced in India to supplement the ancient musical instruments like Flute, Nadaswaram, Veena, Gootuvadhyam, Thavil, Mridangam and Plain drum. The six outstanding Sanskrit playwrights of all times, Shudraka, Harsha, Visakhadatta, Bhasa, Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti have made tremendous contributions in the field of dramatics. Kalidasas Shakuntala, King Harshas Ratnavali, Bhasas Swapna-vasavadatta, Bhavabhutis Uttara-rama-charita and Mahavira-charita, Visakhadattas Mudrarakshasa are some of the outstanding Sanskrit plays, which indicate that India had a highly sophisticated theatre tradition in the ancient times when in most other countries it was still in its infancy. Again in the field of literature, the earliest writing can be traced to the Rig Vedic poetry in Sanskrit. The Rigveda consists of 1028 suktas or hymns that are distributed in ten books called mandalas. This is perhaps, the earliest poetry in the world. The two great Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata composed by Valmiki and Vyasa respectively, along with the Puranas, constitute the pillars of the Indian literature. The Manu Smriti (1st century BC) is the best illustrator of the Dharma-sastras or Smritis or the Hindu religious laws. Kalidasa, Bairavi, Sudraka, Vishnu Sharma, Dandin and others composed several literary masterpieces in the ancient times. India s contribution to the world was also immense in the field of astronomy, mathematics and Medicine. Aryabhatta was the first to state that the earth moves round the sun and that the eclipses are caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. Aryabhattas Aryabhatiya, Dasagitika-Sutra and Aryastasata belonging to the 5th century, Varahamihiras Pancha-siddhantika, Brahmaguptas Brahmasphuta-siddhanta and Khanda-khadyaka, Bhaskaracharyas Siddhanta-shiromani and Karana-kutuhala and Bhojas Raja-mriganka are important ancient Indian texts on astronomy. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans, which was consolidated 2500 years ago by Charaka, the Father of Medicine. Another ancient Indian, Sushruta, who is considered as the Father of Surgery, is believed to have conducted complicated surgeries using over 125 different surgical equipments. Usage of anesthesia was also well known in ancient India . Like-wise, detailed references to anatomy physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity are found in many ancient Indian texts. India s most precious gift to the world is zero (0), which was referred to as Shunya in ancient texts. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus also came from India . One of the best-known achievements of the Indian mathematics is the decimal system. Its first occurrence was on a plate of the year 595 AD where the date 346 AD was written in decimal place-value notation. Aryabhatta, who calculated the value of ? as 3. 1416, is also credited with the creation of Algebraic analysis. Budhayana explained the concept of the Pythagorean Theorem way back in the 6th century. Brahmaguptas Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta has two chapters devoted to arithmetic, algebra and geometry. Bhaskaras Lilavati was for many centuries a standard work on arithmetic and mensuration in the East. The worlds first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC, where more than 10,500 students from all around the world studied more than 60 different subjects. The University of Nalanda , established in the 5th century BC, was perhaps the greatest centre of learning in ancient India . Described as The Oxford University of Mahayana Buddhism, it offered wide range of subjects like literature, logic, grammar, medicine, philosophy and astronomy. Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages. A report in the Forbes magazine of July 1987 described Sanskrit is the most suitable language for the computer software. Vaishali, in modern Bihar , is acknowledged as the World’s First Republic that had a duly elected assembly of representatives and efficient administration as early as 6th century BC. India s culture and heritage is so rich and deep-rooted that it may take several days or even years to understand all its dimensions. From the time immemorial India has fascinated many a world traveller like Fahien, Hiuen Tsang, Ibn Batuta, Alberuni, Ferishta, Vasco da Gama, Marco Polo and several others. Albert Einstein once said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. The great German Indologist Max Muller said: If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power and beauty that nature can bestow in some parts a very paradise on earth I should point to India . If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed the choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solution of some of them, which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato and Kant I should point to India. The following quotation of the great American philosopher and writer Will Durant sums up the divine land called India, thus India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europes languages; she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Lord of the Flies--Sense of Order - 1779 Words

With reference to Lord of the Flies, discuss how the sense of order deteriorates on the island in the course of the novel. Support your views with examples. In the book, various symbols are used to represent the establishment and the gradual fall of law and order on the island. The most important characters and symbols to be considered in this case are probably Piggy, Piggy’s glasses and the conch. The deterioration of the sense of order on the island is not caused by a single event, but is a step-by-step process that is marked by several milestones. I believe that the development of the sense of order on the island can be divided into three main stages. In the first stage, the boys were conscious of the need of order in the society,†¦show more content†¦Finally, the boys’ disobeying orders led to a dismal result—the signal fire went out because they did not keep watch over the fire, and a ship passed by without seeing the signal, in other words, in disobeying orders, the boys lost a precious chance of getting rescued. Jack, as the leader of the hunter camp, was blamed for letting the fire out. In a rage, Jack smacked Piggy, and one of the lenses on Piggy’s glasses was broken. The broken lens marked the failure of the boys to establish order on the island, and thus, another phase begins. In the second stage, the sense of order on the island diminishes further, and such descend is catalysed by the boys’ fear for the unknown. It begins with Ralph’s calling a meeting after dark, and it ends with Simon’s death. In the meeting after dark, after Ralph finished talking about the rules and orders that the boys should follow, the topic about fear and the beast was brought up. The topic raised heated arguments, and the meeting soon became out of order. In the meeting, Jack confronted Ralph for the first time, and stated clearly his stance—using violence, not rules or order as the way to solve problems, ‘Bullocks to the rules! We’re strong—we hunt! If there’s a beast, we’ll hunt it down!’ The boys, all except for Simon, Ralph and Piggy, ran into a frenzy of savagery under Jack’s lead. They chanted and mimicked the action of hunting, all sorts of rules or orders behind their heads. InShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Lord Of The Flies And Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1208 Words   |  5 Pagesit. The novels, Lord of The Flies by William Golding and The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, demonstrate this prospect as through the narrative techniques of characterisation, plot, setting and style, they exemplify the moral decline of man under pressure to survive, ultimately resulting in savagery. Characterisation plays a major role in both texts as each character serves as a representation humanity and the faults within it. Throughout Lord of the Flies there is a developingRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1200 Words   |  5 Pagestheir own in an area without rules. The human race will fall apart without a set of rules that apply to them. When left on its own, and given an opportunity, human nature will revert back to the inherent savagery that lies within. In the book Lord of the Flies a British plane crashes on a deserted island in the middle of nowhere. The only survivors are a group of boys, and without any adults, the kids are left to fend and govern for themselves. Throughout the rest of the book, groups start to formRead MoreThe Battle Between Good Versus Evil960 Words   |  4 Pagesthe power of words. The plot, concept, and language are so extraordinary that human eyes easily bypass the most ordinary objects of all in the story, ones that can o nly be read between the lines in order to reveal truly deep meanings. The connection to William Goldings prize-winning novel Lord of the Flies is undeniable. An island in the middle of the sea where several young boys strive for survival and create a society all on their own is remarkable. The novel tells the tale of a society run by childrenRead MoreLord Of The Flies And The Tempest1303 Words   |  6 PagesExplore the struggle/desire/theme of power and how it is presented in ‘Lord of the Flies’ and ‘The Tempest’. In the novel ‘Lord of the Flies’ by William Golding and ‘The Tempest’ by William Shakespeare, power is a main theme throughout both texts. Both represent microcosm of outer society at the time the text was written. In Lord of the Flies it was a time when the world’s dominant countries were struggling for power over Germany which was known as the Cold war. The capitalist American’s wantedRead MoreMichelle Duan Mrs. MJ English 10 H, per. 3 13 February 2014 A Symbol’s Worth a Thousand1500 Words   |  6 PagesSuch is the nature of the symbols found in William Golding’s Lord of the Flies. As a group of boys stranded on an island struggle to survive without adult supervision to maintain order, Golding uses a variety of objects to convey their descent from civilization into brutality, violence, and savagery. Of these objects, three hold particular significance. In Lord of the Flies, Golding uses the conch, the signal fire, and the Lord of the Flies to symbolize civilization, hope for rescue, and inner evilRead MoreLord of the Flies Nature of Man1726 Words   |  7 PagesLord of the Flies: The Nature of Man William Golding’s Lord of the Flies is a gritty allegory of adolescence, innocence, and the unspoken side of human nature. Countless social issues are portrayed, however one of the most reoccurring is the nature of man. Throughout the novel there is an ever-present focus on the loss of innocence amongst the boys, shown by the deterioration of social skills and their retrogression into a barbaric form of society. Also portrayed is the juxtaposition of a cruelRead MoreLord Of The Flies Pig Head Analysis1023 Words   |  5 Pages2017 The Symbolic Meaning of the Lord of the Flies â€Å"We are civilized people, which means that we are all savages at heart but observing a few amenities of civilized behaviour.† Tennessee Williams, a prize winning playwright once stated about civilized humans. In the book Lord of the Flies by William Golding this quote depicts what the book is trying to point out and display to us. The quote ties in with the pig head on a stick, otherwise known as the Lord of the Flies. The pig head was killed barbaricallyRead MoreLord Of The Flies By William Golding1212 Words   |  5 Pagesisland in the middle of nowhere—pretty scary right? Well this is just what happens in William Golding’s Lord of the Flies. This piece of literature is used by the author to describe the very real society of human beings, through the eyes of young, â€Å"innocent† children. There is savagery, evil, goodness at heart, and the sense of hope, whether being lost or discovered, in this book. In Lord of the Flies, there are multiple dif ferent symbols that Golding uses to show the fall of society. Two of them beingRead MoreUse of Symbols in Lord of the Flies by William Golding Essay1388 Words   |  6 Pagescharacters play major roles in representing power in works of literature. Therefore, an author uses these ‘symbols of power’ to control the characters and the overall course of the work. In Lord of the Flies symbols are both used by the characters and stand on their own. Fire on the island is a dual blade and Lord of the Flies impedes on progression. While these two symbols stand on their own, the characters use and are used by them. Ralph leads the boys to advancement while Jack stands as his oppositionRead MoreWilliam Goldings View of Humanity1383 Words   |  6 Pagesboys and cynical view of the war. William Golding says, the theme (of the book) is an attempt to trace back the defects of society to the defects of human nature... Goldings view of humanity is clearly displayed throughout Lord of the Flies. Through the constant symbolism we are made aware of Goldings pessimism towards society. As the book progresses he forms an allegory between the island and the real world. When the boys first arrive on the island they are full

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Inequalities Of Food Distribution Essay - 1241 Words

In the past, human beings lived completely based on hunting animals and gathering natural fruits and vegetables to support their daily diet, which is known as hunting and gathering societies. Because of relatively small population size, people lived together as a small group, helped one another work, and shared the amount of food equally. However, the advancement of new technology and the booming population have transformed lives in this modern world. Since the rise of industrialization, unequal food distribution is seen as a problem resulting from wealth imbalance and growing population. Nowadays, the poor are getting poorer and living in hunger while the rich are getting richer and eating wastefully every day. Consequently, the inequalities in food distribution pattern should be a major concern, as they threaten the social condition, equitable and sustainable development in all world regions. Firstly, overeating-related illnesses and famine are good indicators showing why the unequ al allocation of food to human beings should be considered as a main problem. In industrialized societies people consume most of the world’s resources since they possess a great deal of wealth and thus, have a better access to these resources. Particularly in the United States (US), an incredibly large number of Americans consume far more energy than those of the other less-developed nations. To illustrate, the energy consumed by an average American is as much as that consumed by 13 Chinese, 31Show MoreRelatedSocial Policies And Welfare And Social Issues1621 Words   |  7 Pagessector. As the textbook reads, the persistence of poverty remains the primary motivator for most social policy today (Bianco 450). The rapid growth of social policy is proving that the rate of income inequality in the United States is growing at a steady pace. For example, the income distribution from 1979 to 2009 the average income of the top 1 percent grew by $700,000 to $1,220,100 (a 133 percent g ain), compared to a $2,600 gain to $18,900 (16 percent) for the bottom fifth of the income levelsRead MoreCorrelation Between Race And Health Inequalities905 Words   |  4 PagesSocial Determinants of Health, I have the opportunity to examine the relationship between race and health inequalities. Race is a significant predictor of the distribution of health inequalities as it is quite notable that people with similar biological traits seem to experience a non-random distribution of morbidity and mortality. There are various underlying factors of health inequalities in relation to race. This report will focus on the scientific misconception of racism, the consequences ofRead MoreIs Inequity A Big Problem? The United States?1714 Words   |  7 Pageshow income is distributed through causes of income inequality, social status, and even how the government interventions is trying to alleviate income inequity. What is income inequality? First we must define what exactly income inequality really is and that is according to Definition of ‘Income Inequality’ (2015) said to be unequal income distributed to household or individual across the various participants in an economy. Income inequality is often presented as the percentage of income to aRead MoreMicroeconomics : Income And The United States1702 Words   |  7 Pageshow income is distributed through causes of income inequality, social status, and even how the government interventions is trying to alleviate income inequity. What is income inequality? First we must define what exactly income inequality really is and that is according to Definition of ‘Income Inequality’ (2015) said to be unequal income distributed to household or individual across the various participants in an economy. Income inequality is often presented as the percentage of income to aRead MorePHI2604 income distribution Essay661 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿Patricia Pupo Professor Matthew Sang PHI 2604 26 November 2014 Income Distribution This essay will discuss if current income distribution has a negative impact in the society because of the inequality that exists. What is income distribution? It is how a national income is split between different groups. Rights theory worries as the name says it, about people rights, and action is good if it respects the people’s rights. There are two kinds of rights, positive and negative. The first one relatesRead MoreEconomic Growth And Inequality Of Opportunity1672 Words   |  7 PagesIDPM60711: Economic Development Theoretical link between economic growth and inequality of opportunity ‘The case of the Arab Spring’ Word count: 1654 Introduction Global discourse around the issue of growing inequality and specifically inequality of opportunity has come to the fore in recent years driven by violent public action witnessed in the spring of 2011. A little southern town in Tunisia known as Sidi Bouzoid in December 2010 took global centre stage in the push for economic emancipationRead MoreSocial Inequalities Within New Zealand Essay1322 Words   |  6 PagesThis essay will be discussing the social inequalities within New Zealand. These inequalities can include unequal income, education and healthcare. Through extensive research of academic resources, I will be discussing how educational, family, social and political factors contribute to the development of these inequalities. I will also be providing a line graph that shows the unequal income between classes and a second line graph that demonstrates the difference in student success between high decileRead MorePoverty Inequality And Economic Growth1466 Words   |  6 PagesThe purpose of this essay is to investigate the extent in which poverty, inequality and economic growth are related. These three dimensions are regularly perceived as indices of the complex and multidimensional concept of ‘economic development’. This term is not black and white however: it is a concept that is more than just merely income analysis. Poverty can be broken down into two separate definitions: absolute and relative. Absolute poverty describes the position of an individual who is livingRead MoreEssay Inequality of Wealth and Income Distribution in America1357 Words   |  6 PagesInequality of Wealth and Income Distribution in America Every American dreams of finding a job that pays well enough so that they may comfortably take care of their loved ones and themselves for years to come. Most Americans hope to find some way to make a living that they enjoy, something that they view as productive. Unfortunately, many do not have this luxury. In our society, a good portion of the population is forced to hold the base of our country in place while hardly being redeemedRead MoreSocial Income Inequality Essay1162 Words   |  5 PagesA major social problem in America today is its inequality of the distribution of income. Income inequality refers to the gap between the rich and the poor. The United States has the most unequal income distribution in the industrialized world, and it is growing at a faster rate than any other industrialized country (Eitzen Leedham, pg. 37). The main reason as to why income is distributed so unequally is because of the gap between social classes. Each social class has a certain power, and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Jacob Kounin - 700 Words

Jacob Kounin Who Is Jacob Kounin? * Jacob Kounin is a classroom behaviorist theorist. He first started as a psychologist at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. * He is best known for two studies he did in 1970 that was based on classroom management. * He began his studies in 1970 by writing Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. He wrote the book to discuss the effective and ineffective behaviors in the classroom. The process began by observing teachers in an everyday classroom setting to see how they handled misbehaving. He found that no matter how the teacher’s handled the given situation, the outcome was always the same. His conclusion was basically to prevent misbehavior before it even happens.†¦show more content†¦Momentum is also a learning tool for teachers. After completing a lesson and the students are just not getting it, the teacher can reevaluate how he or she wrote it. Smoothness * Smoothness basically boils down to having daily routines and procedures. If you explain to students what you expect out of them at the beginning of the year, your classroom will run a lot smoother. Smoothness can occur in a classroom starting with morningShow MoreRelatedTheorist Approaches Of Classroom Management Essay1592 Words   |  7 Pageslearning). The role of the teacher is to establish and maintain a productive social system or a productive classroom group (McDonald, 2010). This can be achieved by using the Group Process Approach strategies: 1. Exhibits â€Å"withitness† behaviors (Kounin) 2. Exhibits overlapping behaviors 3. Maintains group focus 4. Fosters reasonable, clearly understood expectations (foundation) 5. Shares leadership 6. Fosters open communication 7. Fosters attraction 8. Establishes and maintains group morale (teacherRead MoreThe Impact Of Modern Day Education On The World Of Education1475 Words   |  6 Pageseducation. However, amongst these numerous individuals, there have been six management strategists in particular whose work has vastly influenced modern day education. These six: B.F. Skinner, Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg, William Glasser, Jacob Kounin, Haim Ginott, and Rudolf Dreikurs are considered to be pioneers of modern discipline. These strategists, different in their principle teachings and contributions, have provided educators all around the world with the knowledge and skills necessaryRead MoreEffective Teaching And Classroom Management1344 Words   |  6 Pagesflexible and able to identify which teaching strategy will be most effective in their classroom. Jacob Kounin introduced five principles of classroom behaviour management which have been clearly associated with higher student learning levels and effective teaching (Ba rry King, 1998). This essay will endeavour to outline and reflect on effective teaching strategies and the key principles of Kounins variables: Withitness, overlappingness, smoothness, slowdowns, student accountability and how theyRead MoreManaging Challenging Behaviors Within Classroom Management976 Words   |  4 Pagesmentioned in part 1 is influenced by various behaviours theories. The first one is for Jacob Kounin who identified the importance of preventing the disruptive actions in the first place from happening . This could be illustrated through a well prepared lesson with a specific characteristics, including, withitness, smoothness, momentum, overlapping and group alerting (Kounin, Friesen Norton, 1966; Kounin, 1970; Kounin Doyle, 1975). Withitness means that the teacher needs to be aware of everything happeningRead MoreThe Impact Of Ecological Classroom Management On The Classroom1341 Words   |  6 Pagestheory and comparing their disciplinary actions within. Jacob Kounin: Instructional Management According to Kounin, in order to be a successful instructor, you must show appropriate behaviors as a teacher, maintain appropriate instructional motion and plan a learning environment that is beneficial to learning and behavior. Teachers must take themselves and their actions in the classroom into account when considering the behavior of students. Kounin identified several behaviors of teachers that can contributeRead MoreMy Philosophy Of Classroom Management1428 Words   |  6 Pagessomeone there to help you whenever you most need it. There is also always going to be someone who recognizes your natural talents. My philosophy of classroom management comes from these four theorists: Curwin and Mendler, Fredric Jones, and Jacob Kounin. Curwin and Mendler focus on the seven different principals of Discipline with Dignity. Along with Curwin and Mendler, Kounin’s theory is very similar in the sense that the multiple discipline techniques and strategies were implemented to preventRead MoreClassroom Management Pl Philosophy And Theory2544 Words   |  11 Pagesbest approach to teaching, and it helps in enhancing its effectiveness. 1.1 Theory A number of theorists have come up with ideas about effective classroom management. The most prominent theorists include Burrhus Frederic Skinner, Rudolf Dreikurs, Jacob Kounin, Alfie Kohn, Fred Jones, William Glasser, Haim Ginott, and Thomas Gordon. These theorists have had a profound impact on classroom management at both elementary and secondary school levels. Frederic Skinner was a psychologist who held the viewRead MoreClassroom Management Plan Proforma, A List of Things to Consider When Planning a Class2984 Words   |  12 Pagesand relaxation to make the students and teacher feel like a community. My teaching approach is authoritative/ democratic, using an instructional management plan, following an interactionist theory of teaching. I am heavily influenced by theorist Jacob Kounin where he believes that teachers prevent misbehavior through awareness in the classroom and by using effective lesson management techniques to influence student behavior. I believe that primary prevention is fundamental with dealing with classroomRead MoreAn Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay1205 Words   |  5 Pagessuch give me a dejavue flashback to the need for change spurred by the educational reform, which the Sputnik Era generated to the institution of the open classroom also known as the school without walls, which was based upon the researcher like Jacob Kounin. Ideas which were utilized in the school without wall like students working in groups, teachers’ facilitating the learning experience, reconfiguration of the learning environment to engage students, and student directed learning sounds very similarRead MoreA Study Of Teaching Classroom Discipline / Management Techniques Essay1551 Words   |  7 Pagestec hniques. Finally, the third section discusses the different types of discipline procedures that should be taught. David mention seven methods that will improve classroom discipline management. These methods were designed by the following authors: Jacob Kounin, B. F. Skinner, William Glasser, James Dobson, Haim Ginott, Frederic Jones, and Lee Center. As a conclusion, each classroom techniques had two points in common. One point is they all had positive and negative reinforcement. The next point is

The Issue Of Gun Control - 854 Words

Gun control Gun Control is a hot debate topic, where people have been divided into two different viewpoints. The majority of states have supported their colleges to carry guns in case of a mass shootout. While the majority of liberals and democrats oppose carrying guns on school property, some states like Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, and Mississippi have already passed the law to allow students to carry concealed weapons on campuses to protect themselves. The majority of people present their arguments that Gun shouldn’t be allowed on campuses. A campus is a place where students gain knowledge. It is not a battlefield or a place where students should fear their classmates. These days’ people are being irrational about mass shootouts. Media also has a huge responsibility on this issue, and media has the power to provoke fear among people. There are many solutions to fix these problems. Deploying more security could be a solution; it would also create more jobs. Simply handing guns to teachers and students won’t solve the problem of mass shootouts. There might be some students or faculty members who are same minded as shooters. The other solution which could be effective is deploying more police officers onto campuses. Writer LZ Granderson writes that â€Å"in a country with a 350 million people, but there are more than 310 million guns, we don’t need more guns. Especially in the school area.† (Teachers with a gun is a crazy idea). If security isShow MoreRelatedGun Issue And Gun Control1401 Words   |  6 PagesUniversity, Gun Politics has been a course I have aspired to take. While many enroll in such a course looking for an escape from the â€Å"collegiate liberal echo chamber† or as an outlet for their conservative agendas, I saw the class as an â€Å"entrance to the dark side.† My views on guns prior to the class were, I would call, polarized yet uninformed. In most of my discussions, I would cite the Australian 1996 National Firearms Agreement as precedent for how American politicians should approach the gun issueRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pagessomebody who wants to inflict harm on other people to get his or her hands on a gun.â₠¬  (Simple Minded Gun Control). Gun control is a controversial issue worldwide. The reason why this has attracted so much attention is because not everyone is in favor of gun control and each side brings up excellent points about the issue. Research related to this issue strongly supports the claim that there SHOULD be more gun control laws. Three arguments that prove this position are (1) Incidents like Sandy HookRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1489 Words   |  6 Pagessplit on the issue of gun control. We have seen many violent shootings and innocent people dying because of gun violence. 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Since 1791 when the second amendment was ratified there have beenRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1705 Words   |  7 Pagesaway without preface or reason. All someone needs to do is pull the trigger. In today’s world, guns are far too accessible to the people of society. We hear in the news, stories of mass shootings, homicides, and suicides; most of which are caused by the activation of a gun. A hot-button issue, gun control is one of the most debated topics in American politics. Shou ld we, or should we not, be able to own guns? Although it infringes on the Second Amendment that provides the right to bear arms, this amendmentRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control951 Words   |  4 PagesGun control has been a big topic for the past decade in the united states. These debates will rise and fall time in and time out after something horrific happens in the state. 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Firearm can be used as defending or an assaulting weapon. In United States, firearm increase the rate of homicide, suicide and gun violence, which can harm and murder people. Moreover, taking away people’s gun will not work effectively because the murder and criminal will find another ways to get guns. Also, the black market will appear for the people who cannot get guns from regulated market s. In addition, if regulated guns are banned, murderers may useRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1678 Words   |  7 PagesJanuary 2014 The 2nd Amendment Over the past few years, the issue of gun control has been widely discussed. You surely have heard the phrase, â€Å"Guns don’t kill people, people kill people† uttered and i wholeheartedly support this statement. It is important to treat guns responsibly so they do not end up in the wrong hands. I believe gun control violates our inalienable rights. 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Jane ayre Essay Example For Students

Jane ayre Essay Jane Eyre would have only found bad, she now also finds good. Also, du The novel, Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte is a thought provoking book that deals with the heroine, Jane, trying to break free of the social orders of the nineteenth century, in order to free herself from the restraints of the class system of the time and to free her heart from her inner self. In order to express this theme, Bronte creates five places that represent the emotion of her heart: Gateshead, Lowood, Thornfield, Moor End and Ferndean. By creating these five settings, Bronte leads us on a Journey, with Jane narrating, away from the concrete situation into a world of symbolism. On this journey Bronte uses Jane to show the proper relationship between private feelings and moral order. Her struggle with this relationship is a searching process from depth to even deeper depth in her own heart to reveal the nature of her ultimate self (Weekes, 77). In order to finally win this struggle, she has to break through the social restraints so that her buries heart can flower. The first setting of Janes heart that the reader comes to know is Gateshead. This place is the estate of Janes Aunt Reed, a lady who resents Jane because she has to take care of her. Also, residing with Jane at the estate are her three very indulged cousins, who pick on Jane even, resulting in physical violence: She lay reclined on a sofa by the fireside, and with her darlings about her (for the time neither quarrelling nor crying) looked perfectly happy. Me, she had dispensed from the group (Bronte, 1). This quote shows how unfair and unhappy daily life was for Jane. Even the setting outside the house reflected the mood: The cold winter wind had brought with it clouds so somber, and a rain so penetrating (Bronte, 1). The cold represents the frozen heartedness of the Reeds and the wind represents the torrent of emotions within the household (Weekes, 8). This reflection of the weather shows how throughout the book, the setti ngs symbolize Janes predicaments. A devastating part of her stay at Gateshead was when she was locked in the Red Room for defending herself against an attack from he cousin, John. This room was all red, and was supposedly haunted by the ghost of Mr. Reed. Jane entered this room a quiet, placid girl, but she exited a defiant girl. As a result of this defiance, Mrs. Reed got the excuse she was looking for to send her away, so Jane was sent to live at Lowood. At Lowood, a corrupt Orphan home, the setting of injustice that was seen at Gateshead takes place again, but this time it is intensified with starvation, disease and humiliation. Ironically, even though this new home was worse than the old one, this is the time when Janes heart starts its slow process of thawing out. At this school, Jane was finally a part of a community, and one person in particular in this community who helped change her life was Helen Burns (Weekes, 79): While disease had thus become an inhabitant of Lowood, an d death its frequent visitor; while there was gloom and fear within its walls; while its rooms and passages steamed with hospital smells that bright May shone unclouded over the bold hills and beautiful woodland out of doors (Bronte, 69). This quote shows how Janes heart is starting to flower. In a situation where once she ring this time another change began to develop within Janes soul. She began to develop an inner-conscience and a faith connected to God. This house is also the place where a very important factor comes into play. Jane learns to paint. Painting is one of the main symbols of Jane trying to break free from restraint (Weekes, 79). Her paintings, which were usually dark, show us that Janes psyche is still bleak and very much concerned with somber thoughts. This image, on first look, leads us to believe that her heart is not free, but on closer analysis we see that in order to express herself in this way, her heart must be opening up enough to let emotion come through. The next setting that the reader finds Jane in is Thornfield Hall. Thornfield Hall is not necessarily as much a metaphor for Janes heart as it is for Edward Rochesters heart. It is a representation for the tropical half-life that he tried to escape, but cant get away from. Here, at Thornfield, Jane goes to work as a governess for Rochester and now is when Jane really starts to start her struggle to break free of the restraints of the social classes, so that she can free her heart. This struggle begins when Jane finds herself falling in love with her employer. Rochester is not a handsome man, but Janes eyes find beauty in him and she falls in love with him, and he falls for her. Janes feelings for Rochester are ambivalent. He draws her to him with a strong fascination; yet she is repelled by his animalism and by the fact that he locked his mad wife in the attic (Chase 23). His changes of mood did not offend me, because I saw that I had nothing to do with their alteration; the ebb and flow depended on causes quite disconnected to me (Bronte 120). In this quote Jane is showing us once again how the moods go with the setting. She is saying that she understands that he has a very wide range of moods and that she is not the cause of them, but that some other force or being in the house is the cause. Most of the Thornfield section of the book is a development in Rochester while Janes main development stage comes later at Moor Head. The development in Rochester, during this section of the book, is his struggle to defy what he sees as the meaningless restraints of society and to marry Jane despite what others in his social class might think (Weekes 82). After leaving Rochester and Thornfield Hall to escape the pressures of facing the fact that she lost her heart to a married man, Jane goes to live at Moor End. Moor End symbolizes sanctuary and duty (Chase 24). Here Jane doesnt have to worry about competing to fit into the higher social class because everyone in the vil lage is poor. This setting is the only other place besides Lowood that she was accepted as part of a community. Ironically what comes across is a sense of ultimately intolerable limitation; nowhere can be found a society bound together by shared values, sustaining the individual in a system of communal relationships (Weekes 79). In order to be part of a society Jane feels she must lower herself to teaching in a country schoolhouse because in her mind she could never excel to social standards on the master-servant relationship that she had with Rochester. Also, though, she can not accept the dutiful life that St. John Rivers, from Moor End, proposes to her. Rivers wants to marry Jane and take her away to another country, where he plans to do missionary work. Jane realizes that the life of loveless duty is not something she could be happy with, and though Moor End was a sanctuary that let her rest her weary heart it could be one no longer. So when Jane hears a subliminal call for that she believes has come from Rochester, she leaves St. John to go find her love who she now knows contains her heart. Jane seeks Rochester at his old home Thornfield Hall. Here she finds that the house has been destroyed by fire, and Rochester lost his mad wife, Bertha, and his eyesight while trying to save her. Finally, Rochester who before was not able to completely separate himself this manor or his mad wife has been released from this burden by some other force. Now his heart is finally released. Only Janes heart has yet to be unleashed from that innerself that keeps it hidden and this act soon comes in the book. After finding the house in ruins, Jane seeks Rochester at his other house Ferndean. This house is the final place of the heart. Ferndean images a greenness, a new growth still possible for the shattered tree (a reference to the tree split by lightning at Thornfield) of their relationship (Weekes 85). At this refuge there is no pressure from the social world. I know no we ariness of my Edwards society: he knows none of mine, any more than we do of the pulsation of the heart that beats in our separate bosom, consequently we are ever together (Bronte 431-432). Jane is saying in this quote that with her heart free and Edward always by her side, she is finally free of social restraint. Jane Eyre is a powerful book that uses five settings as metaphors for an individuals private heart. In this book Puritan sentiment is exploited at its greatest with a touch of Gothic undertones (Heilman 96). It is a cry from the heart and of the heart, a passionate book that works by involving the reader with the inner development of its heroine and her struggle to overcome social restraint and to free her heart from her innersole (Weekes 85). This book shows us how the heart is private, even after breaking through societys convictions the heart should still remain private, but not hidden, only to be shared with those a person truly trusts or loves. 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